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Population densities and home range sizes of the Chestnut Wood-quail
We present the first report of population density and home range estimates for the Chestnut Wood-quail (Odontophorus hyperythrus), an endemic and nearly threatened species of the Colombian Andes. Density estimates were obtained using playbacks and spot mapping and point transect methods. Home range sizes were estimated by radio tracking five wood-quail. Estimated densities varied from 0.3 to 0.4 groups per hectare. These densities are similar to those reported for other mountain wood-quail, but higher than those for lowland wood-quail and other species in the family Odontophoridae. Estimates of home range size varied from 2.6 to 9.0 hectares per group, and seemed to be correlated with group size. We also found evidence of overlap in the home ranges of neighboring groups. Population densities may vary with factors such as habitat type, but our estimates allow a first approximation of the population sizes of Chestnut Wood-quail in forest fragments.
Basic mapping and use of GPS
Does plant diversity benefit agroecosystems- A synthetic review
Predictive theory on how plant diversity promotes herbivore suppression through movement patterns, host associations, and predation promises a potential alternative to pesticide-intensive monoculture crop production. We used meta-analysis on 552 experiments in 45 articles published over the last 10 years to test if plant diversification schemes reduce herbivores and/or increase the natural enemies of herbivores as predicted by associational resistance hypotheses, the enemies hypothesis, and attraction and repellency model applications in agriculture.
Does plant diversity benefit agroecosystems- A synthetic review, Apendixes
Predictive theory on how plant diversity promotes herbivore suppression through movement patterns, host associations, and predation promises a potential alternative to pesticide-intensive monoculture crop production. We used meta-analysis on 552 experiments in 45 articles published over the last 10 years to test if plant diversification schemes reduce herbivores and/or increase the natural enemies of herbivores as predicted by associational resistance hypotheses, the enemies hypothesis, and attraction and repellency model applications in agriculture.
Repertoire size and composition in great tits- a flexibility test using playbacks
In many bird species, song repertoire characteristics play an important role in intersexual competition and intrasexual attraction. Studies on the importance of having a large repertoire typically assume the available song types as a fixed trait. However, repertoire composition may be flexible. We explored the effects of playbacks on the composition and use of the song type repertoire in great tits, Parus major. Playbacks simulate a nearby competitor male, vocally advertising territoriality. We compared the effects of novel song types with two control groups, one in which we played back one of the song types from the repertoire of the focal individual, and one without playback. The repertoire size for individual great tits of actively used song types remained more or less constant, but playbacks led to a significant turnover in repertoire composition over a relatively short period (about a week). The repertoire assessment across three experimental phases led to significantly larger accumulated repertoires compared to the more traditional short-term assessment method. The appearance of new song types was especially prominent among birds treated with a novel song type, suggesting the process is socially mediated. None of the 'new' song types were accurate copies of the novel unfamiliar song types played back. We discuss the potential origin of these 'new' song types and the impact of repertoire plasticity on signal value for sexual selection.
Activity pattern and diet of red howler monkey in Andean forest
We report on the activity budgets and diet of three red howler troops at elevations of 1900-2100m at Santuario de Fauna y Flora Otún Quimbaya in the Central Cordillera of Colombia. The three troops used different habitat types that included combinations of old-growth and secondary forest, and Chinese ash (Fraxinus chinensis) plantations. The daily routine consisted in an alternation of feeding and resting periods, and traveling among feeding trees. The three groups spent 58% of their time resting, 21% feeding, 15% traveling to feeding trees, and 6% in social interactions, with some differences among groups possibly related to habitat type. Time spent resting decreased towards noon and increased again at the end of the day. The diet was composed mainly of foliage (49%) and fruits (45%). We found differences in diet composition among troops, probably related to the types of resources found in their home ranges in each habitat type. Monkeys initiated their activities late (8:00-9.00), particularly in cold and rainy mornings. Social interactions consisted mostly of play sessions involving infants and juveniles. We observed few allogrooming sessions of short duration. The behavioral plasticity of howler monkeys allows them to adjust their time budgets and diet to varied conditions, but in general their activity patterns are conservative, which is related to their highly folivorous diet and sedentary lifestyle.
Additions to the Colombian Anacroneuria fauna with descriptions of seven new species
Seven new species are described from Colombia: Anacroneuria citara, A. otun, A. pastora, A. quimbaya, A. tatama, A. tayrona and A. tunasi. The first Colombian records are given for A. bari Stark, A. curiosa Stark and A. harperi Stark; the latter two species were previously known from Mesoamerica and this is their first report from South America. New records, mainly in the Andinum natural region, are presented for 20 previously reported Colombian species. In addition, the unknown females of A. calima Baena & Rojas, A. marta Zúñiga & Stark and A. yameo Stark & Sivec are described, and three unassociated females are described under informal designation.
Bird species diversity captured by protected areas in the Andes of Colombia- a gap analysis
Formed by three Andean ranges and two peripheral elements, the complex mountainous system of Colombia harbours a diverse avifauna (.1,500 spp.) characterized by high large-scale beta diversity and endemism. We conducted an analysis of representation of bird species in protected areas for eight subregions of the Colombian mountains by means of a comparison between potential and recorded faunas in each area. Potential faunas were compiled by considering the distribution of species across the subregions, their elevational ranges, and the elevational extent covered by each protected area in each subregion.
Bird species diversity captured by protected areas in the Andes of Colombia- a gap analysis, supplements
Formed by three Andean ranges and two peripheral elements, the complex mountainous system of Colombia harbours a diverse avifauna (.1,500 spp.) characterized by high large-scale beta diversity and endemism. We conducted an analysis of representation of bird species in protected areas for eight subregions of the Colombian mountains by means of a comparison between potential and recorded faunas in each area. Potential faunas were compiled by considering the distribution of species across the subregions, their elevational ranges, and the elevational extent covered by each protected area in each subregion.
Colombia migratory bats
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